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A collaborative approach to industry-environment issues is acknowledged as a key aspect of sustainable development. Sincerely, resource sharing among firms offers the potential to increase stability of operations, especially in supply-constrained areas, by ensuring that access to important inputs such as water, energy and raw materials are guaranteed. Industrial Symbiosis (IS), a subfield of Industrial Ecology, is primarily concerned with the cyclical flow of resources through networks of industrial units as a means of cooperatively approaching environmentally sustainable industrial activity.
In line with this principle, a critical assessment of the change in environmental performance brought about by industrial symbiosis (IS) was conducted in nineteen selected eco-industrial park case studies identified in all regions of the world with the exception of the African continent. Case study selection criteria were based on models of eco-industrial parks proposed by Chertow (2000). A description of the type of material exchanges that go on in each case study was carried out which revealed evidence of implemented synergies in respective case studies. A comparative assessment of cross-case patterns which is a semi-quantitative matrix used to quantify the degree of environmental performance showed that there was a clear evidence of improved environmental performance among respective case studies investigated where water, energy and material flows served as indicators.
Results obtained from the study showed a common pattern of industrial presence in respective case studies reflecting the occurrence of heavy process industries such as oil refineries, cement industries, petrochemical industries, and steel industries. The principle of “anchor tenant” proposed by some experts in the field of industrial ecology was strongly supported by the obtained results. Symbiotic cooperation among participating firms in respective case studies were mainly on areas like cogeneration, re-use of materials, recycling and wastewater treatment and re-use.
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